CAPTAIN JEFF DAVIS:
(off-mic.) coming today. Today,
we are pleased to welcome Major General Doug Chalmers. He's the deputy commander for strategy and
sustainment at the Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve
briefing us today from Southwest Asia.
Major General Chalmers will take -- make a few opening
questions and then -- comments, excuse me, and then take your questions. We'll have about 30 minutes for this
briefing, a little shorter than I know what you're used to with Steve. I will call on you for questions.
While you're able to see him, he may not be able to see you,
so we'll be sure to state your name and outlet as we call on you. Without any further ado, General Chalmers,
we'll pass it off to you for opening remarks.
U.K. MAJOR GENERAL DOUG CHALMERS: Jeff, thank you.
Good morning. My name
is Major General Doug Chalmers. I'm
currently serving as one of the two deputy commanders of the Combined Joint
Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve. I
deployed here to the Middle East with the staff of the U.S. 3rd Armored Corps
from Fort Hood, Texas back in September, and I've been serving as one of the
CJTF deputy commanders for about the last six months.
Some of you by now would have recognized that my accent
means that I'm not actually originally from Texas. I'm on an exchange tour from the British army
with the U.S. 3rd Corps until after our deployment. I'll return back to Fort Hood with the Corps
to complete my secondment to the Corps headquarters.
I've got some prepared remarks for you today, and then I'll
gladly take your questions in the time that we have. First and foremost, on behalf of the entire
CJTF, I'd like to extend our thoughts and prayers to the people of Brussels and
all of those impacted by the cowardly terror attacks here in Baghdad over the
last couple of weeks. Attacks like these
remind us of the importance of our mission.
We remain steadfast in our resolve to defeat Daesh. Daesh's violent, extremist ideology and
ambition to expand must be stopped.
As you know, the mission of the Combined Joint Task Force is
to defeat Daesh in both Iraq and Syria by synchronizing combat operations and
supporting effects with our partners in both Iraq and Syria. Every day, our partners, enabled by the CJTF,
are achieving visible effects against Daesh.
This is a tough fight, however, it is one that is necessary and one
which I'm confident that we as a coalition will win.
Our strategy to defeat Daesh has not changed. We continue attacking the enemy with strikes
across the breadth and depth of their so-called caliphate to weaken them whilst
we enhance the lethality of our partner forces on the ground in both countries
through close coordination of our fires with their movement.
Concurrently, we work with our partners to better prepare
them for the type of fighting that they are experiencing by enhancing their
training, equipping and through our advice.
Leveraging the unique capabilities of the different nations of the
coalition that are directly contributing to the military campaign here gives us
real strength as a mission of many nations in achieving these tasks.
One of my roles as a deputy commander is to ensure that the
Iraqi Security Forces have the necessary forces and right equipment to defeat
Now, this can range with meetings with senior Iraqi officers
to discuss their current and future force generation requirements, down to
coordinating with our own logisticians to ensure that the ammunition and
vehicles are resourced and delivered to the right Iraqi bases.
To date, as you know, we've trained nearly 20,000 Iraqi
Security Forces, many of which have already participated in the fight, such as
the successful liberation of Ramadi. And
today, many of those forces are committed to the counter-attack operations that
are ongoing either in the Euphrates River Valley, or up in the Tigris River
This training includes both army and police, as the police
units, which will enable the government of Iraq to hold the ground once it has
been liberated from Daesh.
While the Iraqi Security Forces continue to conduct shaping
operations in preparation for the isolation of Mosul, we, the coalition,
continue to put pressure on Daesh inside the city through strikes against all
facets of their operations.
This includes their headquarters, finances, weapons
manufacturing sites and propaganda sites.
All of this, when synchronized with the operations on the
ground in both Iraq and Syria, by the Iraqis and our Syrian Democratic Forces
and other opposition forces are isolating Mosul from Raqqa, and will make it
harder for Daesh to freely move and resupply all reinforcements between those
We firmly believe the momentum is now on our side, and we
will do all that we can to enhance counter-Daesh operations where we can.
We are working closely with the Iraqi Security Forces to
identify opportunities, such as specialized training for things like river
crossings with mobile bridges, police training, logistics support and the
provision of fire support.
But I'll reiterate what has been said by many of the
briefers before you and indeed, senior leaders -- all of these capabilities are
in support of and in coordination with the government of Iraq. Ultimately, these capabilities are agreed
upon and approved by the Iraqis.
The resolve of the coalition continues to grow as we all
share the same objective of defeating Daesh in Iraq and Syria. And the importance of that objective has only
become clearer in the time that I've served here in the CJTF.
As a deputy commander, I interact, on a frequent basis, with
all our contributing nations, reviewing both their current and future personnel
and capability assignments, equipment donations and contributions to the
The contributing nations of the coalition are deeply
invested and across the spectrum of our efforts, and we'll continue to support
the building of our partners in both Iraq and Syria, as their capacity to
defeat this enemy continues.
My very last parting comment before I take your questions is
I'd like to take a few seconds to inform you of our new CJTF-OIR website. After much hard work, we are happy to
announce our website is now operational and active at www.inherentresolve.mil,
Inherent Resolve being all one word. A
big thanks to all of the people who made this a reality, from the Defense Media
Advisory Activity Group to CENTCOM.
Our site is very -- is collaborative with the new global
counter-ISIL site, globalcoalition.org, and we'll continue to improve the
website as we go along with the intent of giving you a better insight as to
what the contributing nations and our partners are doing on a daily basis.
I understand the standard routine is that the Associated
Press traditionally gets the first question.
So back over to you in Washington.
CAPT. DAVIS: That
would be Lita Baldor. Lita?
Q: Hi, General. It's Lita Baldor with AP. Thanks for doing this.
On the Iraq operations, General Dunford the other day said
that we should expect to see addition U.S. forces going to Iraq in the coming
weeks. First, do you have any sense how
many more, and do you have any thoughts at this point about where they may go? Are they likely to go up in the north where
they can help with the Mosul shaping operations, and are they likely to include
either more movements by Marines with the -- with the Iraqi forces? Thank you.
GEN. CHALMERS: No,
thank you for that question. And I saw
the comments by the chairman the other day.
As you'd expect for us as a -- as a headquarters, we have been working
very much with our Iraqi partners as they have expanded their operations and
gone into the counterattack, and we've effectively, through that planning,
worked at what could be described as a menu of capabilities to continue to
enable or enhance them as their operations have expanded.
In terms of exactly when from that menu we'll see movements
for, I am not measuring it necessarily in terms of weeks, I know we're waiting
for some decisions to be made both outside of here and back in Iraq
itself. In terms of the where, it very
much, let's say, work with Iraqis as they have expanded their operations both
in Anbar and up into Ninawa Province.
That will come as their plan confirms where the additional enablement by
us is required.
And I would just put one part just to sort of add a piece to
your question there. You mentioned
movement at the end. Everything I've
described there is to continue really to enable and expand our support to our
Iraqi partners in that way. So we --
we're not looking at changing what you've see us do so far, we're going to work
in support of our Iraqi partners, particularly in the provision of advice and
fire, but not actually move with them as you -- you might have just mentioned
by accident there.
Hopefully, that answers the question, but I'll take a
follow-up if you want me to.
Q: I -- yes, on the
Marines, I think that was the part of the question. I'm wondering if we'll see more fires by the
Marines in support of the Iraqis as they advance, and will you beef up that
type of support?
GEN. CHALMERS: That's
one of the aspects inside the menu. I'm
very much, as you will have seen, you know, the Marines were put in there with
those -- with the artillery in order to provide either self-defense fires or
supporting fires as they were advancing.
And as they have been advancing, you'll be aware that those
U.S. Marines with those guns have been supporting our Iraqi partners. I'm doing more of that, and we've doing a
similar type of activity down in Anbar with Army artillery units as well in
support of our Iraqi partners there.
And expanding that sort of capability is on the menu, but
I'm not sure exactly who it might provide -- it may even be other coalition
members as well.
CAPT. DAVIS: Next to
Barbara Starr from CNN.
Q: General, being as
you are from Texas, at least temporarily, I would ask -- I want -- I'm sure
you're aware of the conversation across the United States about military --
about what the military is doing in the counter-ISIL campaign, and a lot of
suggestions from national level -- level figures about what they think needs to
Because you talk to the coalition members so often, I wanted
to ask you two things. Do you hear
anything from any -- first, do you hear anything from any coalition members
about the notion that one hears in the United States on a national level that
using nuclear weapons against ISIS should be on the table?
Does anybody in the coalition you've ever talked to think
that's a good idea?
No. I -- that's -- that's a
conversation, I've never heard discussed amongst any of our coalition members
at any stage. I have to admit, that one
has taken me completely by surprise.
The simple answer to that is no.
Q: Could I ask you
another follow up? Here in the United
States, from national level figures, or at least one of them, there has been a
discussion that troops these days are afraid to fight -- those are the words
used -- that they are afraid to fight, because they are worried about the
Geneva Convention implications of their actions.
On a level of the working military out there fighting ISIL,
have you ever heard that anybody is afraid to fight, because they could be held
accountable under the Geneva conventions?
And I suppose that applies to your own government as well,
your own British troops. Is -- are they
afraid to fight because of the Geneva Convention? That is something that has been brought up
No. I've seen over the last couple
of years similar sort of articles sort of raising that as a question. As a -- as an infantry officer who has been
involved in sort of combat over pretty much the last decade, all of the troops
I've had the privilege of commanding very much understand the underpinning
context of the Geneva Convention, the reason that it is established.
And we are never -- I've never heard of -- of soldiers
afraid to fight because of the Geneva Convention in that regard. We regard it very much as a sense of basic principles
which guide our behavior in battle and very much enable us to deal with which
is a very unusual human experience.
And to live within those rules, I think is good for both our
soldiers and indeed, the very population that we fight on behalf of.
CAPT. DAVIS: Next is
-- I believe it's John.
Is that right? Yeah.
Q: Yes. John Hines, One America News.
And I just wanted to follow up on the -- there was a bit of
a controversy surrounding the British in Basra, and there was a withdrawal
there and the reluctance of forces to support the Charge of the Knights.
And I wondered if the British military is feeling a sense of
needing to redeem itself at this point.
GEN. CHALMERS: I did
serve in Basra, but not at that period of time.
I don't think the British military -- I'll speak here now -- I remember
that, I remember it's a story, it's something that has come up in discussion
over time and the lessons that we've learned from it, but that was quite some
And I think for most of our military now who have served
multiple tours in Afghanistan since, there was absolutely, I definitely feel,
no sense to redeem myself. I'm a
professional military soldier and I think the reputation for the British army
still stands strong in that regard.
CAPT. DAVIS: Okay,
great. Next to Courtney from NBC News.
Q: Hi, General.
So, going back to Lita's first question, we've asked several
times in the past weeks about the shaping operations in Mosul. What is the most up-to-date, the most recent
estimate for how many Iraqi troops it will take to actually begin the offensive
operations, not the shaping operations, but to actually begin the operations in
Mosul? And what's the most up-to-date
estimate for when they will -- those troops will be prepared to begin that? And then I also -- I have a question on Syria
GEN. CHALMERS: Well
on the Mosul question, you're going to think I'm being slightly evasive, and I
don't mean to be, but you'll be -- (inaudible) -- the fact that the details of
such sort of operational planning, and we work with our Iraqi partners on that
on a regular basis. It is definitely one
of those areas that they are retaining operational security of.
You rightly touched that the isolation of Mosul has very
much moved on with the Iraqi army now operations starting, and we talked about
the U.S. Marine Corps artillery that's in support of those operations.
But the next steps after that for good, sound sort of
military security reasons, the Iraqis are looking to sort of keep discreet at
this time. But I worked very hard trying
to understand their plans in order to ensure that we can properly sustain and
support their scheme of maneuver as it develops. I know that's slightly evasive, but you'll
understand that military planning, particularly for something of this
complexity, is something that they are -- they're keen to keep reasonably tight
Q: And then if I
could ask you one question on Syria -- I'm not sure if this falls completely in
your lane or not. But on the Russian
activity in Syria, can you give us an update on what you're seeing? We know -- there were reports that they took
about 20 aircraft about two weeks ago, I think it was, two or three weeks
ago. Are you seeing a with -- oh, did
you -- did you lose me?
GEN. CHALMERS: No,
Q: Okay, good. I can be louder if that helps.
(off-mic.) that. I'm sorry.
Q: That's okay. I'll start over. It's Courtney Kube from NBC News still. On Syria, could you give us a sense of what
you're seeing about Russian activity in Syria?
There were reports --
CAPT. DAVIS: He's
listening. He's just --
GEN. CHALMERS: I'm
really sorry. I'm -- I didn't hear a
word of the question. I apologize.
STAFF: 3, 2, 1. Can
you hear us, general?
Q: Can you hear me
(AUDIO CONNECTION LOST)
CAPT. DAVIS: General,
we're testing again. 1, 2, 3, 3, 2, 1.
GEN. CHALMERS: All
right, that sounds better. I can -- I
could hear some of that.
CAPT. DAVIS: We have
a question about Russia -- (inaudible) -- Syria.
Q: Thank you. I don't know if I should use this, or --
CAPT. DAVIS: Yeah,
keep for -- yeah, try it without.
Q: Okay. Hi, general.
It -- so, on Russian presence in Syria, can you give us a sense of what
you're seeing there?
There were reports a couple of weeks ago that the Russians took
about 20 aircraft out. Have they moved
any more aircraft out since then? I
think it was May -- or March 17th.
And are -- what kind of operations are you still seeing them
conduct in Syria? Is it helicopters,
fixed-wing? What sort of strikes are they
GEN. CHALMERS: Good
question. I apologize for not being able
to hear earlier on. I've been slightly
late with my response back to you.
I think what we saw -- the cessation of violence after the
announcements was a number of Russian aircraft, as you've described,
withdraw. They've retained a presence
inside of the country, and they are still supporting the regime in some of
those operations that are being conducted.
What we have seen a change of since the cessation of
violence, and you're seeing this in open sources that their operations, now are
mostly focused against advances towards Daesh-held areas, Palmyra being the
most recent objective.
And they're supporting the regime through a number of range,
and you've described some of them yourself there, from our observation of what
we've seen so far.
And that's -- that's probably about the best picture that
I've got at the moment. As you know, we
don't do detailed coordination with the ground elements on that side with the
Okay. Richard Sisk.
Q: Hi, general. Thanks for doing this.
In the way of sustainment, can you give us any sense, any
idea of the -- the scope of the coalition effort in -- in supplying equipment
to the ISF?
Do you have any figures on that, how much?
GEN. CHALMERS: That's
a very good question. And I -- I don't
have the figures directly to hand. But
actually, you would be able to find them fairly easy to hand.
We used the Iraqi train and equip fund, which has procured,
as you know, a lot of equipment sets and has also provided us the freedom in
order, sometimes, to increase things like training sites to enable the trainees
to sort of operate through.
Those -- those figures are held -- they're public out there. I can't remember exactly what the figure
is. It was one, something, but I
wouldn't like to -- billion wise -- that was used through.
But that work has gone on through, and over time, we've used
that fund, particularly focused on the counter attack brigades to sort of equip
them and train them, and re-equip them to move forward.
And as that has -- as they've deployed forward, and then,
I've actually got some on -- (inaudible) -- in detail now. I think the original tranche of ITEF was $1.6
billion, and that allowed us to sort of roll out the first series of
counter-offensive brigades. And there
have been subsequent tranches added to that.
And those subsequent tranches, we are very much using to do
extra niche bits of battle damaged replacement vehicles that have been lost in
combat. And then sustainment, either
through spare parts or ammunition, to sustain those units in what is quite a
high-intensity fighting at the moment, therefore is outstripping what is there
routinely budgeted forecast.
What we're also doing, though, is working with our local
police forces. And this is an area where
other nations' donations have proven extremely useful, things like body armor
for the police, and some of the non-standard ammunitions for things like the
AK-47, et cetera -- which have also received quite a lot of donations from a
number of countries that have helped us meet that demand.
Q: If I could follow,
General, please. In the way of the --
setting the conditions for the shaping operations up around Mosul, is there
thought to delivering more to the ISF, to the Peshmerga, in the way of AT4s, or
GEN. CHALMERS: I
think what we have done is I've been in a number of meetings where the Iraqis
have -- and the Peshmerga very much gone through their experiences of fighting
Daesh over the period of time, and worked out -- and identified what works and
what can be improved.
And as they go through that period, we tune our training,
and as you've described, we tune some of the equipments that we provide. We get a better idea of what they use in
higher ratios than not. And some of the
items you've mentioned there are the sort of bits on the list.
Along with that, also, clearly, is a lot of engineering
equipment, given the level of the improvised explosive devices that Daesh are
using very much as obstacles to try and limit the advance of some of our
CAPT. DAVIS: Okay,
next to Lucas Tomlinson, with Fox News.
Q: Thank you,
Just a follow up to Courtney's question. Have the Russians put in more equipment to
Syria than they have taken out?
GEN. CHALMERS: No,
not that I've seen. All I've seen is the
-- is the withdrawal of the aircraft.
There was equipment in there, as you know, they've had equipment in
there for, you know, many, many years.
Some of that was withdrawn, some of that was returned.
What I've seen is a withdrawal of aircraft, but I haven't
seen, as you've just described there, the reverse flow as inferred.
Q: But overall,
general, are you seeing a Russian pull out of Syria?
GEN. CHALMERS: No,
I've seen a partial withdrawal of some capabilities, is how I'd describe it.
Q: Seeing the Russian
forces overall pulling out?
GEN. CHALMERS: No, I
think it might have been a crossover there.
I think -- I wouldn't describe it as that. I would describe it as a partial withdrawal
of some capabilities.
Q: And then going
over to Iraq. Are you seeing any
Iranian-backed forces in and around Mosul?
GEN. CHALMERS: No. No, we're not.
Okay. Next, we'll go to Luis
Martinez, with ABC News.
Q: Thank you,
general. Going back to the lessons
learned from Ramadi, how well did the Iraqi forces do with the -- maintaining
their supply lines for this -- for the -- what turned out to be a very long
And what lessons can be learned for what can be transferred
to Mosul, given that the larger scope of that -- that potential operation?
GEN. CHALMERS: Well,
that's a very good question.
I think the Iraqis did learn a lot of lessons, and I think
they've learned the lessons, if you could move from sort of Tikrit onwards and
the initial part. And Ramadi, we saw
sort of an example of that.
The first bit, I think, is they -- I've seen much better
cooperation between the Iraqi army, the Iraqi police and the counterterrorism
service, and actually them sort of ensuring that they can support each other's
sustainment pieces. And I have seen them
work out how ammunitions should flow, and particularly how vehicles can be
recovered and replaced back. And that
has enabled us to try and better understand what they need more of in -- at
time and space.
But the -- what we call the burn rate, i.e., the rate at
which items are being used, I think that is one of the key lessons that we took
out both for us and the Iraqis, because as you rightly say, you know, Mosul is
different. It is also further away from
the main Iraqi logistics base, and therefore, they are working pretty hard at
trying to understand exactly what they need to pre-position in order to sustain
some of those lessons learned from Ramadi.
Q: If I could follow
up on what you were discussing as the burn rate, are you talking about
ammunition, are you talking about equipment that was specifically needed for
that operation that they didn't have in larger numbers?
GEN. CHALMERS: Yeah,
I'm talking -- you're quite right to describe it as both. So the ammunition bit and the burn rate we
use is a -- it's a phrase to describe the average usage rates every single day,
which allows us to sort of map out over that period of time.
But the other thing we've noted is the damage to vehicles or
the spare parts that we used. For
example, Humvees got their radiators shot out more than normal, and therefore,
working out which bits of spares we need to have available in the workshops to
put vehicles back into -- into effect sooner rather than later.
Q: Thank you.
Okay. Next, we'll go to Corey
Dickstein with Stars and Stripes.
Q: Hi, general. Thanks for doing this.
I want to go back to -- you mentioned the menu of
capabilities you guys have given to the Iraqis.
I wanted to see, could you give us any insight into what kind of
capabilities we're talking about? I
think you had offered at one point Apaches before Ramadi. And can you tell us how open the Iraqis have
been to such a menu.
GEN. CHALMERS: I
think, you know, the menu would, as I mentioned earlier on to one of the
earlier questions, we are looking really at still continuing within the
approach that we've adopted at the moment.
The Apaches which we've talked on before has been mentioned by Secretary
Carter, and it's been an open discussion, that is part of that sort of package. But the other sort of capabilities very much
are within what we have been doing and proven to have been doing, as we learned
And the real reason for this -- (inaudible) -- mentioned is
as the Iraqis expand and continue their counteroffensive both in Anbar and
Ninawa, they're simply doing more and they're expanding into that area. So trying to work out exactly how we'll
better enable them as they sustain momentum in that counterattack is the piece
that we're working at.
CAPT. DAVIS: Anybody
else? So yeah, Richard.
Q: General, can you
tell us anything about the situation right now in Makhmur where the -- where
the Marines set up the firebase? A
number of reports that the Iraqis had to abandon some positions that they tried
to take and then fell back. What's the
status up there right now? Are they
GEN. CHALMERS: The --
I read, I think, one of those reports a couple of days ago, actually, and it
caused us to sort of go back and sort of have a quick look. And I think in many areas like this, a battle
as you know, comes in ebbs and flows, and it's at the end of the day to see
whether you have held land or moved land forward really is the only judgment.
And what we've seen over the day, since the Iraqis have
moved out of Makhmur forward, has been a steady and pretty confident
progress. Some areas are harder than
others, but over the piece, roughly there in line with their objectives that
they've set. And there are some areas
that are just tougher and take a bit longer, and they have to sort of move a
bit more focus and effort on.
Btu what I've seen a pretty confident advance along the line
of their objectives over the period of time since they've stepped off.
CAPT. DAVIS: And a
quick follow up from Lita and then from Luis.
Q: General, a quick
follow up on that. Can you also tell us
how much the Marines are doing there, as far as fires from their fire base?
Is increasing, is it steady?
And what is the level of attacks they are taking there at the fire base?
GEN. CHALMERS: I'll
work from the back sort of forwards.
In terms of attacks on the base, I would since -- since
sadly, we lost Staff Sergeant Cardin, we have -- have sort of dropped
down. Because as the Iraqis have moved
forward and advanced forward, that clearly has distracted any local attacks.
There is still the occasional, indirect fire attack, but
even that seems to have dropped down from where it was earlier on. It's now more concentrated actually on the
Iraqis who have advanced forward of the Peshmerga lines, in line with what the
objectives we have just described.
In terms of what the Marines are therefore doing, there is
the occasional piece of self-defense fire responding to those indirect attacks
that I've just touched on, but that has dropped down. A lot of their fire missions now are in
support of those advancing troops, and is either in support using high
explosive, or sometimes using illumination rounds at night to help the Iraqi
forces during some of the nighttime activity
CAPT. DAVIS: And Luis
Q: Another follow up
on that, sir. As the Iraqi military
moves forward, let's say, does that -- I know the artillery is long-range, but
is it a possibility that this fire base could move forward as well, or that you
would need additional artillery further up as the Iraqi military progresses up
GEN. CHALMERS: You
wouldn't be surprised to know that, you know, how long it stays there, and as
you know, the U.S. Marine guns were put in their to support a particular piece
of activity. We will keep that under
review and at times, we will adjust it as required.
But where we make that adjustment to, that stuff, we simply
haven't quite closed with yet. Because
just don't forget the artillery is part of our sort of other fires,
particularly the air-delivered fires.
And it's that combination of coalition fires and support that we sort of
try and work through all the time.
CAPT. DAVIS: And one
last quick follow up from Lucas, here.
Q: Just one more
follow-up, general. There's some reports
that some Iraqi forces have, once again, retreated. Can you comment on those?
GEN. CHALMERS: Do you
know whereabouts we're talking about?
Q: I heard very
general, just as this Mosul advance has gone underway, there has been some
reports that some Iraqi forces have retreated, cut and run and just wanted --
for the record, wanted you to talk about those.
Are they true? Are
they not true?
GEN. CHALMERS: Yeah,
I -- again, I think -- I read an article that described exactly that, I think,
a couple of days ago now, or maybe yesterday.
And the simple answer is, they go back into battles do ebb
and flow. So, when they come across
sometimes, sometimes they withdraw to reposition and re-attack and to
counterattack before it's normal.
And what I have seen, as I say, is at the end of each day is
a steady, incremental increase and advance by the Iraqi forces.
So I think what we have seen -- we have seen sort of
re-positioning, but the advance very much has been continued.
And I compare and contrast that, for example, to this time
last year where we probably might well as have seen the Iraqi forces
withdraw. What we've seen them this --
over this advance is when they come across Daesh resistance, they re-position,
consolidate, and then re-attack. And
that's a significant advance as they've got to better understand the enemy that
they're dealing with at the moment.
CAPT. DAVIS: And with
that, ladies and gentlemen, we're out of time.
General Chalmers, thank you very much for your time and coming live to
us as you are. We appreciate the
information and the update. Have a good
GEN. CHALMERS: Thank